The Constraints-led Approach Framework in Training and Coaching.

  • Theodoros Roussos
  • Konstantinos Liosis
  • Vasileios Samdanis
  • Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos
Keywords: constraints, representative learning design, physical education


Movement “constraint” is defined as a variable that defines the way a movement can be organized and controlled. The “constraint model” emphasises the important interactions of individual constraints, environmental constraints, and those of skill - in a balanced perspective - and suggests that constraints can shape the manifestation of movement patterns, cognitive processes, and decision-making processes. According to the Constraints Model, any learning / teaching environment should be arranged in such a manner as to provide any learner with capability or protentional into movement. Therefore, in this way, each youngster will feel that they have accomplishing something, improving their perception of their abilities and, thus, their self-confidence. The application of the Constraint Model within PE can help to ‘shape’ young people who will progress in life with fluency and skill, will be creative and confident, and have acquired a deep understanding and knowledge of how they interact within a dynamic and ever constantly changing environment.


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Author Biographies

Theodoros Roussos

Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Konstantinos Liosis

5th Orthopaedic Department, HYGEIA Hospital, Athens, Greece

Vasileios Samdanis

5th Orthopaedic Department, HYGEIA Hospital, Athens, Greece

Ioannis K. Triantafyllopoulos

5th Orthopaedic Department, HYGEIA Hospital, Athens, Greece


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