Shoulder instability: a brief review

  • Spyridon Manthas
  • Ioannis Kotsalis
  • Lampros Oikonomou
Keywords: Shoulder, glenohumeral, instability.


Shoulder instability is a condition in which the humeral head partially or completely dislocates from the glenoid fossa. This can occur due to a traumatic injury (traumatic instability), repetitive strain on the joint, or generalized ligamentous laxity (atraumatic instability). In the majority of cases, glenohumeral instability is associated by a labral tear which prevents the humeral head from fitting properly into the glenoid fossa, causing it to shift out of place. Anterior shoulder dislocations comprise the majority of cases of glenohumeral instability.
Symptoms of shoulder instability may include a feeling of looseness or instability in the joint, pain or discomfort in the shoulder, weakness or loss of strength, and a sensation of the shoulder “popping out” or “slipping.” In severe cases, the humeral head may completely dislocate from the glenoid fossa, causing intense pain and disability. Diagnosis of shoulder instability usually involves a thorough physical exam and imaging studies such as x-rays, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Treatment of shoulder instability depends on the severity of the instability and the underlying cause. Conservative treatment for shoulder instability may include rest, ice, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medication. Physical therapy is especially important in cases of multidirectional instability, as strengthening exercises can help improve stability in the joint. If conservative treatment fails to relieve symptoms, surgery may be necessary. Absolute indications of surgical management are contradictory. Operative treatment is reserved after failed conservative management, recurrent dislocation at a young age, irreducible dislocation, open dislocation, post-reduction instability of the shoulder and first-time dislocation in young elite athletes. Surgical options for shoulder instability include arthroscopic procedures and open surgeries. Arthroscopic procedures are less invasive and may have fewer complications, but may not be appropriate for all types of instability. The choice of surgery depends on the underlying cause of the instability, the patient’s age and activity level, and other factors. For traumatic instability, the most common surgical procedure is an arthroscopic Bankart repair, where the torn labrum is reattached to the glenoid fossa using sutures or anchors. In cases of atraumatic instability, surgery may involve tightening the capsule and ligaments around the joint, or transferring a portion of the coracoid process to the anterior aspect of the glenoid (Latarjet procedure).
Recovery from shoulder stabilization may take several months, and may involve a period of immobilization, followed by physical therapy to regain strength and range of motion in the joint. Patients should avoid activities that put stress on the shoulder, such as lifting heavy weights or participating in contact sports. Overall, shoulder instability can be a debilitating condition that affects many people, especially those involved in sports or other activities.


Download data is not yet available.


Bakhsh W, Nicandri G. Anatomy and Physical Examination of the Shoulder. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2018 Sep;26(3):e10-e22.
Chang LR, Anand P, Varacallo M. Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Glenohumeral Joint. 2022 Jan.
Kadi R, Milants A, Shahabpour M. Shoulder Anatomy and Normal Variants. J Belg Soc Radiol. 2017 Dec 16;101(Suppl 2):3.
Curl LA, Warren RF. Glenohumeral joint stability. Selective cutting studies on the static capsular restraints. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996 Sep(330):54-65.
Klungsøyr JA, Vagstad T, Klungsøyr PJ, Hellevik AI, Drogset JO. Dynamic and Static Stabilization of Anterior Shoulder Instability With the Subscapular Sling Procedure. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Jul;10(7):e1773-e81.
Omoumi P, Teixeira P, Lecouvet F, Chung CB. Glenohumeral joint instability. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Jan;33(1):2-16.
Eljabu W, Klinger HM, von Knoch M. The natural course of shoulder instability and treatment trends: a systematic review. J Orthop Traumatol. 2017 Mar;18(1):1-8.
Neer CS, 2nd. Involuntary inferior and multidirectional instability of the shoulder: etiology, recognition, and treatment. Instr Course Lect. 1985;34:232-8.
Karadimas JE. Recurrent traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. 218 consecutive cases treated by a modified Magnuson-Stack procedure and follow for 2-18 years. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1997 Oct;275:69-71.
Krøner K, Lind T, Jensen J. The epidemiology of shoulder dislocations. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1989;108(5):288-90.
Brelin A, Dickens JF. Posterior Shoulder Instability. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2017 Sep;25(3):136-43.
Hill HA, Sachs MD. The Grooved Defect of the Humeral Head. Radiology. 1940;35(6):690-700.
Itoi E, Tabata S. Rotator cuff tears in anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Int Orthop. 1992;16(3):240-4.
Hardie CM, Jordan R, Forker O, Fort-Schaale A, Wade RG, Jones J, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for nerve injury following shoulder dislocation. Musculoskelet Surg. 2022 Nov 29.
Tokish JM. Shoulder Instability. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2020 Dec;28(4):121.
Yamamoto T, Yoshiya S, Kurosaka M, Nagira K, Nabeshima Y. Luxatio erecta (inferior dislocation of the shoulder): a report of 5 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2003 Dec;32(12):601-3.
Callanan M, Tzannes A, Hayes K, Paxinos A, Walton J, Murrell GA. Shoulder instability. Diagnosis and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2001 Jul;30(7):655-61.
Malek S, Reinhold EJ, Pearce GS. The Beighton Score as a measure of generalised joint hypermobility. Rheumatol Int. 2021 Oct;41(10):1707-16.
Lizzio VA, Meta F, Fidai M, Makhni EC. Clinical Evaluation and Physical Exam Findings in Patients with Anterior Shoulder Instability. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2017 Dec;10(4):434-41.
Goud A, Segal D, Hedayati P, Pan JJ, Weissman BN. Radiographic evaluation of the shoulder. Eur J Radiol. 2008 Oct;68(1):2-15.
Ruiz Santiago F, Martínez Martínez A, Tomás Muñoz P, Pozo Sánchez J, Zarza Pérez A. Imaging of shoulder instability. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2017 Aug;7(4):422-33.
Makhni EC, Tramer JS, Anderson MJJ, Levine WN. Evaluating Bone Loss in Anterior Shoulder Instability. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2022 Jun 15;30(12):563-72.
Steinbach LS. MRI of shoulder instability. Eur J Radiol. 2008 Oct;68(1):57-71.
Provencher MT, Midtgaard KS, Owens BD, Tokish JM. Diagnosis and Management of Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2021 Jan 15;29(2):e51-e61.
Polyzois I, Dattani R, Gupta R, Levy O, Narvani AA. Traumatic First Time Shoulder Dislocation: Surgery vs Non-Operative Treatment. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2016 Apr;4(2):104-8.
Olds M, Ellis R, Donaldson K, Parmar P, Kersten P. Risk factors which predispose first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations to recurrent instability in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;49(14):913-22.
Balg F, Boileau P. The instability severity index score. A simple pre-operative score to select patients for arthroscopic or open shoulder stabilisation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007 Nov;89(11):1470-7.
Hussein MK. Kocher’s method is 3,000 years old. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1968 Aug;50(3):669-71.
Paterson WH, Throckmorton TW, Koester M, Azar FM, Kuhn JE. Position and duration of immobilization after primary anterior shoulder dislocation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Dec 15;92(18):2924-33.
Dang V. The nonoperative management of shoulder instability. JAAPA. 2007 Mar;20(3):32-8.
Lemme NJ, Kuczmarski AS, Goodman AD, Ready LV, Dickens JF, Owens BD. Management and Outcomes of In-Season Anterior Shoulder Instability in Athletes. JBJS Reviews. 2019;7(11):e2.
Farrar NG, Malal JJ, Fischer J, Waseem M. An overview of shoulder instability and its management. Open Orthop J. 2013;7:338-46.
Rossy WH, Cieslak K, Uquillas CA, Rokito A. Current trends in the management of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013). 2014;72(3):210-6.
Rashid MS, Arner JW, Millett PJ, Sugaya H, Emery R. The Bankart repair: past, present, and future. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2020 Dec;29(12):e491-e8.
Gao B, DeFroda S, Bokshan S, Ready LV, Sullivan K, Etzel C, et al. Arthroscopic Versus Open Bankart Repairs in Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review of the Association Between Publication Date and Postoperative Recurrent Instability in Systematic Reviews. Arthroscopy. 2020 Mar;36(3):862-71.
Fabbriciani C, Milano G, Demontis A, Fadda S, Ziranu F, Mulas PD. Arthroscopic versus open treatment of Bankart lesion of the shoulder: a prospective randomized study. Arthroscopy. 2004 May;20(5):456-62.
Calvo E, Delgado C. Management of off-track Hill-Sachs lesions in anterior glenohumeral instability. J Exp Orthop. 2023 Mar 21;10(1):30.
Hatta T, Yamamoto N, Shinagawa K, Kawakami J, Itoi E. Surgical decision making based on the on-track/off-track concept for anterior shoulder instability: a case-control study. JSES Open Access. 2019 Mar;3(1):25-8.
Murphy AI, Hurley ET, Hurley DJ, Pauzenberger L, Mullett H. Long-term outcomes of the arthroscopic Bankart repair: a systematic review of studies at 10-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Nov;28(11):2084-9.
Hurley ET, Manjunath AK, Bloom DA, Pauzenberger L, Mullett H, Alaia MJ, et al. Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Conservative Management for First-Time Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arthroscopy. 2020 Sep;36(9):2526-32.
DeFroda SF, Mehta N, Owens BD. Physical therapy protocols for arthroscopic Bankart repair. Sports health. 2018;10(3):250-8.
Detrisac DA, Johnson LL. Arthroscopic shoulder capsulorrhaphy using metal staples. Orthop Clin North Am. 1993 Jan;24(1):71-88.
McIntyre LF, Caspari RB. The rationale and technique for arthroscopic reconstruction of anterior shoulder instability using multiple sutures. Orthop Clin North Am. 1993 Jan;24(1):55-8.
Morgan CD, Bodenstab AB. Arthroscopic Bankart suture repair: technique and early results. Arthroscopy. 1987;3(2):111-22.
Hawkins RJ, Krishnan SG, Karas SG, Noonan TJ, Horan MP. Electrothermal arthroscopic shoulder capsulorrhaphy: a minimum 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Sep;35(9):1484-8.
Mohtadi NG, Kirkley A, Hollinshead RM, McCormack R, MacDonald PB, Chan DS, et al. Electrothermal arthroscopic capsulorrhaphy: old technology, new evidence. A multicenter randomized clinical trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Aug;23(8):1171-80.
Chen D, Goldberg J, Herald J, Critchley I, Barmare A. Effects of surgical management on multidirectional instability of the shoulder: a meta-analysis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016 Feb;24(2):630-9.
Miniaci A, McBirnie J. Thermal capsular shrinkage for treatment of multidirectional instability of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Dec;85(12):2283-7.
Bankart ASB. The pathology and treatment of recurrent dislocation of the shoulder-joint. British Journal of Surgery. 2005;26(101):23-9.
Jolles BM, Pelet S, Farron A. Traumatic recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder: two- to four-year follow-up of an anatomic open procedure. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004 Jan-Feb;13(1):30-4.
Fabre T, Abi-Chahla ML, Billaud A, Geneste M, Durandeau A. Long-term results with Bankart procedure: a 26-year follow-up study of 50 cases. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010 Mar;19(2):318-23.
Monk AP, Crua E, Gatenby GC, Walsh AJ, Stanley JC, Rosenfeldt MP, et al. Clinical outcomes following open anterior shoulder stabilization for glenohumeral instability in the young collision athlete. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2022 Jul;31(7):1474-8.
Jobe FW, Giangarra CE, Kvitne RS, Glousman RE. Anterior capsulolabral reconstruction of the shoulder in athletes in overhand sports. Am J Sports Med. 1991 Sep-Oct;19(5):428-34.
Fredriksson AS, Tegner Y. Results of the Putti-Platt operation for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Int Orthop. 1991;15(3):185-8.
Inui H, Nobuhara K. Modified Putti-Platt procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Int Orthop. 2020 Jun;44(6):1123-9.
Wirth MA, Groh GI, Rockwood CA, Jr. Capsulorrhaphy through an anterior approach for the treatment of atraumatic posterior glenohumeral instability with multidirectional laxity of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Nov;80(11):1570-8.
Besnard M, Audebert S, Godenèche A. Arthroscopic McLaughlin Procedure for Treatment of Posterior Instability of the Shoulder With an Engaging Reverse Hill-Sachs Lesion. Arthrosc Tech. 2019 Dec;8(12):e1491-e4.
Fuchs B, Jost B, Gerber C. Posterior-inferior capsular shift for the treatment of recurrent, voluntary posterior subluxation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Jan;82(1):16-25.
Gouveia K, Kay J, Memon M, Simunovic N, Bedi A, Ayeni OR. Return to Sport After Surgical Management of Posterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2022 Mar;50(3):845-57.
Cowling PD, Akhtar MA, Liow RY. What is a Bristow-Latarjet procedure? A review of the described operative techniques and outcomes. Bone Joint J. 2016 Sep;98-B(9):1208-14.
Khawaja K, Mohib Y, Khan Durrani MY, Juman NM, Habib AA, Hashmi P. Functional outcomes of modified Bristow procedure in recurrent shoulder dislocation. J Pak Med Assoc. 2021 Oct;71(10):2448-50.
Shao Z, Song Q, Cheng X, Luo H, Lin L, Zhao Y, et al. An Arthroscopic “Inlay” Bristow Procedure With Suture Button Fixation for the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Glenohumeral Instability: 3-Year Follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2020 Sep;48(11):2638-49.
Zarezade A, Dehghani M, Rozati AR, Banadaki HS, Shekarchizade N. Comparison of Bristow procedure and Bankart arthroscopic method as the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:256.
Banas MP, Dalldorf PG, Sebastianelli WJ, DeHaven KE. Long-term followup of the modified Bristow procedure. Am J Sports Med. 1993 Sep-Oct;21(5):666-71.
Ferlic DC, DiGiovine NM. A long-term retrospective study of the modified Bristow procedure. Am J Sports Med. 1988 Sep-Oct;16(5):469-74.
Spoor AB, de Waal Malefijt J. Long-term results and arthropathy following the modified Bristow-Latarjet procedure. Int Orthop. 2005 Oct;29(5):265-7.
Chillemi C, Guerrisi M, Paglialunga C, Salate Santone F, Osimani M. Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: a 24-year follow-up study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2021 Feb;141(2):189-96.
Ernstbrunner L, Wartmann L, Zimmermann SM, Schenk P, Gerber C, Wieser K. Long-term Results of the Open Latarjet Procedure for Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability in Patients Older Than 40 Years. Am J Sports Med. 2019 Nov;47(13):3057-64.
Hurley ET, Jamal MS, Ali ZS, Montgomery C, Pauzenberger L, Mullett H. Long-term outcomes of the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability: a systematic review of studies at 10-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Feb;28(2):e33-e9.
Cho CH, Na SS, Choi BC, Kim DH. Complications Related to Latarjet Shoulder Stabilization: A Systematic Review. Am J Sports Med. 2023 Jan;51(1):263-70.
Bliven KCH, Parr GP. Outcomes of the Latarjet procedure compared with Bankart repair for recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability. Journal of athletic training. 2018;53(2):181-3.
Imam MA, Shehata MSA, Martin A, Attia H, Sinokrot M, Bahbah EI, et al. Bankart Repair Versus Latarjet Procedure for Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 3275 Shoulders. Am J Sports Med. 2021 Jun;49(7):1945-53.
Ernstbrunner L, De Nard B, Olthof M, Beeler S, Bouaicha S, Gerber C, et al. Long-term Results of the Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability in Patients Older Than 40 Years: A Comparison With the Open Latarjet Procedure. Am J Sports Med. 2020 Jul;48(9):2090-6.
Rachbauer F, Ogon M, Wimmer C, Sterzinger W, Huter B. Glenohumeral osteoarthrosis after the Eden-Hybbinette procedure. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000 Apr(373):135-40.
Rahme H, Wikblad L, Nowak J, Larsson S. Long-term clinical and radiologic results after Eden-Hybbinette operation for anterior instability of the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2003 Jan-Feb;12(1):15-9.
Villatte G, Spurr S, Broden C, Martins A, Emery R, Reilly P. The Eden-Hybbinette procedure is one hundred years old! A historical view of the concept and its evolutions. Int Orthop. 2018 Oct;42(10):2491-5.
Wildner M, Wimmer B, Reichelt A. Osteoarthritis after the Eden-Hybbinette-Lange procedure for anterior dislocation of the shoulder. A 15 year follow up. Int Orthop. 1994 Oct;18(5):280-3.
Longo UG, Loppini M, Rizzello G, Ciuffreda M, Berton A, Maffulli N, et al. Remplissage, humeral osteochondral grafts, weber osteotomy, and shoulder arthroplasty for the management of humeral bone defects in shoulder instability: systematic review and quantitative synthesis of the literature. Arthroscopy. 2014 Dec;30(12):1650-66.
Boehm E, Gerhardt C, Kraus N, Scheibel M. Arthroscopic Glenoid Reconstruction for Chronic Anteroinferior Shoulder Instability Using a Tricortical Iliac Crest Bone Graft. JBJS Essent Surg Tech. 2016 Dec 28;6(4):e39.
Ranalletta M, Tanoira I, Bertona A, Maignon G, Bongiovanni S, Rossi LA. Autologous Tricortical Iliac Bone Graft for Failed Latarjet Procedures. Arthrosc Tech. 2019 Mar;8(3):e283-e9.
Warner JJ, Gill TJ, O’Hollerhan J D, Pathare N, Millett PJ. Anatomical glenoid reconstruction for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability with glenoid deficiency using an autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft. Am J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;34(2):205-12.
Ueda Y, Sugaya H, Takahashi N, Matsuki K, Tokai M, Morioka T, et al. Arthroscopic Iliac Bone Grafting for Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability With Significant Glenoid Bone Loss Yields Low Recurrence and Good Outcome at a Minimum of Five-Year Follow-Up. Arthroscopy. 2021 Aug;37(8):2399-408.
Gilat R, Haunschild ED, Lavoie-Gagne OZ, Tauro TM, Knapik DM, Fu MC, et al. Outcomes of the Latarjet Procedure Versus Free Bone Block Procedures for Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2021 Mar;49(3):805-16.
Hasler A, Fornaciari P, Jungwirth-Weinberger A, Jentzsch T, Wieser K, Gerber C. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Aug;28(8):1587-94.
Brewer BJ, Wubben RC, Carrera GF. Excessive retroversion of the glenoid cavity. A cause of non-traumatic posterior instability of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986 Jun;68(5):724-31.
Lacheta L, Singh TSP, Hovsepian JM, Braun S, Imhoff AB, Pogorzelski J. Posterior open wedge glenoid osteotomy provides reliable results in young patients with increased glenoid retroversion and posterior shoulder instability. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2019 Jan;27(1):299-304.
Malik SS, Jordan RW, Tahir M, MacDonald PB. Does the posterior glenoid osteotomy reduce the rate of recurrence in patients with posterior shoulder instability - A systematic review. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2021 Feb;107(1):102760.
Waltenspül M, Häller T, Ernstbrunner L, Wyss S, Wieser K, Gerber C. Long-term results after posterior open glenoid wedge osteotomy for posterior shoulder instability associated with excessive glenoid retroversion. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2022 Jan;31(1):81-9.
Cognetti DJ, Hughes JD, Kay J, Chasteen J, Fox MA, Hartzler RU, et al. Bone Block Augmentation of the Posterior Glenoid for Recurrent Posterior Shoulder Instability Is Associated With High Rates of Clinical Failure: A Systematic Review. Arthroscopy. 2022 Feb;38(2):551-63 e5.
Mojica ES, Schwartz LB, Hurley ET, Gonzalez-Lomas G, Campbell KA, Jazrawi LM. Posterior glenoid bone block transfer for posterior shoulder instability: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2021 Dec;30(12):2904-9.
Aydin N, Enes Kayaalp M, Asansu M, Karaismailoglu B. Treatment options for locked posterior shoulder dislocations and clinical outcomes. EFORT Open Rev. 2019 May;4(5):194-200.
Seppel G, Braun S, Imhoff AB. Neglected Posterior Dislocations and Treatment Modalities. In: Doral MN, Karlsson J, editors. Sports Injuries: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2015. p. 193-204.
Mitchell BC, Siow MY, Carroll AN, Pennock AT, Edmonds EW. Clinical Outcomes, Survivorship, and Return to Sport After Arthroscopic Capsular Repair With Suture Anchors for Adolescent Multidirectional Shoulder Instability: Results at 6-Year Follow-up. Orthop J Sports Med. 2021 Feb;9(2):2325967121993879.
Harada Y, Iwahori Y, Kajita Y, Takahashi R, Yokoya S, Sumimoto Y, et al. Return to sports after arthroscopic bankart repair on the dominant shoulder in overhead athletes. J Orthop Sci. 2022 Nov;27(6):1240-5.
Williams HLM, Evans JP, Furness ND, Smith CD. It’s Not All About Redislocation: A Systematic Review of Complications After Anterior Shoulder Stabilization Surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2019 Nov;47(13):3277-83.
Hamada H, Sugaya H, Takahashi N, Matsuki K, Tokai M, Ueda Y, et al. Incidence of Axillary Nerve Injury After Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization. Arthroscopy. 2020 Jun;36(6):1555-64.
Rodeo SA, Forster RA, Weiland AJ. Neurological complications due to arthroscopy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1993 Jun;75(6):917-26.
Owens BD, Harrast JJ, Hurwitz SR, Thompson TL, Wolf JM. Surgical trends in Bankart repair: an analysis of data from the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery certification examination. The American journal of sports medicine. 2011;39(9):1865-9.
Griesser MJ, Harris JD, McCoy BW, Hussain WM, Jones MH, Bishop JY, et al. Complications and re-operations after Bristow-Latarjet shoulder stabilization: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-92.