Osseointegration potential of mesenchymal stem cells on porous heat treated and untreated 3D-printed Ti6Al4V scaffolds

  • G Vicatos
  • E. van Heerden
Keywords: Osseointegration, MSCs differentiation, Porous titanium implants

Abstract

Hypothesis: Aseptic loosening of artificial joints and long bones implants occurs due to the loss of implant
fixation. By developing an implant with a 3D porous structure at the bone-implant interface, the ingrowth of
bone will permit better and stronger interlocking of the implant to prevent loosening. This study hypothesizes
that the seeding of this three-dimensional (3D) scaffold structure, with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs),
will further improve the potential for osseointegration of the implants, as the existing bone may be able to
unite with the developing bone.
Aim: The aim of this study is thus to investigate the effect that the thermal oxidization, or heat treatment process
on the laser sintered 3D Ti64 scaffolds will have on the potential for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation
of seeded mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Method: Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vandium, or Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), is one of the most commonly used implant
materials. Testing at the University of Cape Town has shown that the heat-treatment of Ti64, at 600 °C for 20
hours, vastly improves the material’s mechanical properties and tribological results. Porous scaffolds were
manufactured and seeded with MSCs. All cell tests were done with rat and human MSCs on both untreated
and heat treated Ti64 scaffolds.
Results and Discussion: The results of MSCs adhesion, growth and differentiation tests on both untreated and
heat-treated titanium porous scaffolds, are presented and compared and show marginal difference in cell
counts.
Conclusions: It is possible to seed patient’s MSCs into porous titanium implants that are in contact with the
host bone, to improve osseointegration and secure interlocking of the implant.

Author Biographies

G Vicatos

Mechanical Engineering Dpt, University of Cape Town

E. van Heerden

Mechanical Engineering Dpt, University of Cape Town

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Published
2020-03-24